Outline of 2 Kings
1. ElishaMiracle working prophet who succeeded Elijah. More Continues Elijah’s Ministry (2 Kings 1:1–8:29)
The Elisha cycle of narratives continues the battle against Baal begun in the ElijahA miracle working Israelite prophet who opposed worship of Baal. More cycle (1 Kings 17-19).
A. Conclusion of Ahaziah’s Reign (2 Kings 1:1-18)
The end of the account of Ahaziah’s reign begun in 1 Kings 22:51-53 relates his illness and attempts to consult the god of Ekron.
B. Elisha Succeeds Elijah (2 Kings 2:1–2:25)
Elisha succeeds Elijah and carries on the battle against Baal.
C. Jehoram of Israel Consults Elisha (2 Kings 3:1-27)
Jehoram seeks Elisha’s counsel in the war against Moab.
D. Elisha’s Miracles (2 Kings 4:1–6:7)
A collection of six episodes present Elisha as a worker of miracles.
E. Elisha’s Political Involvement (2 Kings 6:8–8:15)
Elisha functions as political advisor in battles with Syria (Aram) and encourages Hazael’s overthrow of the Syrian king Ben-hadad.
F. Jehoram and Ahaziah of JudahJudah was the name of Jacob’s fourth son and one of the 12 tribes. More (2 Kings 8:16-29)
Jehoram of Judah is strongly censured for his alliance with AhabKing of Israel who opposed Elijah More of Israel, cemented with his marriage to one of Ahab’s daughters. The reign of Ahaziah, his son, is similarly condemned for these foreign alliances with the Omrides.
2. JehuAnointed king by Elisha, Jehu overthrew the dynasty of Ahab and Jezebel More Purges Israel (2 Kings 9:1–10:36)
Jehu’s bloody story is essentially the account of the end of the Omride Dynasty announced by the prophet Elijah (1 Kings 19:17; 21:21-24).
A. Jehu Anointed King (2 Kings 9:1-13)
Elisha the prophet sends one of the prophets to anointTo anoint is to pour oil, water, or other substances on a person’s head in a ritual fashion. In the Old Testament the prophet Samuel anointed David; and in Luke’s gospel Jesus declared that he was anointed by the Spirit to bring good news to… More Jehu king of Israel in fulfillment of God’s final charge to Elijah (1 Kings 19:16).
B. Jehu’s Violent Purge (2 Kings 9:14–10:36)
Immediately following his acclamation as king, Jehu began the systematic extermination of the House of Ahab, the current representatives of the Omride dynasty. His less violent reforms and policies conclude the account.
3. Athaliah and Joash (2 Kings 11:1–12:21)
Jehu’s purge of the House of Ahab and the worship of Baal resulted in the usurpation of the throne of Judah by the daughter of Ahab and JezebelQueen who promoted worship of Baal and who opposed Elijah More, Athaliah.
A. “King”Athaliah (2 Kings 11:1-20)
Athaliah, the only female to sit on the throne of either Israel or Judah, attempts to bring the Davidic line to an end.
B. Joash of Judah (2 Kings 11:21–12:21)
The death of Athaliah and the extensive restoration of the templeThe Jerusalem temple, unlike the tabernacle, was a permanent structure, although (like the tabernacle) it was a place of worship and religious activity. On one occasion Jesus felt such activity was unacceptable and, as reported in all four Gospels, drove from the temple those engaged… More are stressed in the account of Joash, a relatively good king of Judah.
4. The Collapse of the Northern KingdomThe Northern Kingdom consisted of ten of the twelve tribes of Israel and lasted for 200 years until it was destroyed by Assyria in 721 B.C.E. In the northern kingdom the kings were evil. Prophets like Elijah and Amos railed against them and their evildoing. More (2 Kings 13:1–17:41)
The good kings of Judah experience difficulties while the wicked kings of Israel experience unparalleled prosperity due to God’s mercyMercy is a term used to describe leniency or compassion. God’s mercy is frequently referred to or invoked in both the Old and New Testaments. More. Nevertheless, the looming might of Assyria threatens and ultimately destroys the North.
A. Jehoahaz and Jehoash of Israel, Amaziah of Judah, and Jeroboam IIThe king of Israel (786-746) during a time when Israel increased in prosperity and power. Although Jeroboam’s policies brought prosperity to some in Israel, especially those who dwelt in the cities, the suffering of the poor also increased. Tthe prophet Amos criticized Jeroboam for lack… More of Israel (2 Kings 13:1–14:29)
Amaziah’s successful war with Edom is contrasted with his disastrous war with Israel. His reign is framed by the reigns of Jehoahaz, Jehoash, and Jeroboam II of Israel, kings of Israel who experienced God’s mercy despite their apostasy.
B. Azariah of Judah; Zechariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, and Pekah of Israel; and Jotham of Judah (2 Kings 15:1-38)
This complex chapter depicts the turbulent political situation of Israel in the reigns of five of its kings, framed by the relatively stable reigns of Azariah and Jotham in the south.
C. AhazJudean king in the time of Isaiah who engaged in pagan worship and placated the Assyrians. More of Judah (2 Kings 16:1-20)
Ahaz is portrayed as a weak and indecisive king in the face of external political pressures to align with the anti-Assyrian coalition.
D. Hoshea and the FallThe fall refers specifically to the disobedience of Adam and Eve when they listened to Satan rather than adhering to God’s command not to eat the fruit from the tree. When people act contrary to God’s will, they are said to fall from from grace… More of Israel (2 Kings 17:1-41)
The reign of Hoshea brings an end to the northern kingdom. The chapter concludes with a theological interpretation of the fall of Israel that demonstrates Israel’s thoroughgoing apostasy and intimates a similar fate for Judah.
5. The Collapse of the Southern KingdomThe Southern Kingdom consisted of two tribes of Israel, Judah and Benjamin. Jerusalem was its capital, and the kingdom lasted from 931-586 B.C.E. As with the Northern Kingdom many of the kings were wicked, and prophets like Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel spoke their often judgmental… More (2 Kings 18:1–25:30)
The last century and a half of the political life of Judah is presented as a time when the best kings of Judah (HezekiahJudean king noted for his reforms in time of Isaiah More and JosiahJudean king noted for his reforms of Israel’s worship in the time of Jeremiah More) alternated with the worst kings of Judah (Ahaz and Manasseh). The appearance of Babylon on the world stage at the end of this period was more than the nation could withstand.
A. Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:1–20:21)
Hezekiah is one of the best kings of Judah. His religious reforms and courage during the Assyrian campaigns of 701 B.C.E. are given special attention.
B. Manasseh and Amon (2 Kings 21:1-26)
Manasseh is the worst of the worst in the judgment of the Deuteronomistic editors. He revoked the religious reforms of his pious father, Hezekiah; rebuilt the high places (thus, decentralizing the cult); introduced foreign worship practices; sacrificed his son; and consulted mediums. His son Amon followed the practices of his father in his two-year reign.
C. Josiah (2 Kings 22:1–23:30)
Josiah is the best king of Judah in the judgment of the Deuteronomistic editors. His reforms were carried out in full accordance with the book of the law (an early form of Deuteronomy) discovered in the temple during his reign.
D. The Final Days of Judah (2 Kings 23:31–25:30)
The chaos of Judah’s final days is depicted in the hapless reigns of Jehoahaz, JehoiakimOne of the last kings of Judah. Jehoiakim was the son of Josiah. More, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah, helpless before the might of Egypt and Babylon. Jerusalem falls to NebuchadnezzarBabylonian king who conquered Jerusalem, destroyed the Temple, and exiled the people More who destroys the temple and deports the population to Babylon.