Lesson 4 of 5
In Progress

Introductory Issues in Zechariah


Angels are mentioned 21 times in Zechariah, exceeded in the Bible only by Judges (22), Luke (23), and Revelation (79). The principle role of angels in the Scriptures is to be messengers, and the Old Testament word malak simply means messenger. Malak might be a human or divine being, but malak yahweh, “angel of the LORD,” makes clear that a divine being is intended. If the context indicates that it is a message from one human to another, malak is translated “messenger” (Deuteronomy 2:26; Joshua 6:17, 25; 7:22; Judges 11:12, 13; 1 Samuel 6:21; 11:3-4, 7, 9; 19:11, 14-16; and others). If the context indicates the message comes from God, or if the word used is malak yahweh, “angel of the LORD,” it is clear that the messenger is from God, that is, an angel (Genesis 24:7; Exodus 23:20, 23; 1 Kings 13:18; 2 Chronicles 32:21; Daniel 3:28; and others). Because angels always speak God’s message, Zechariah uses variations of the phrases “Thus says the LORD of hosts” (1:3, 13, 16; 2:6, 9; 7:4; 8:2; etc.) or “the angel who talked with me said” (1:9, 12, 13, 19; 2:3; 3:6; 4:1, 5; 5:5; 6:5; etc.) interchangeably.


The book is in part an example of Jewish apocalyptic literature in the late history of the Old Testament era. The visions, imagery, oracles, angels, and eschatological themes point toward a new future. The first vision of the four horsemen who patrol the earth in 1:8 reappears as the last vision, four chariots drawn by horses in 6:1-8, also patrolling the earth. These two visions are prelude to the “four horsemen of the Apocalypse” in Revelation 6:2-8.

Authorship of chapters 9-14

The tone and character of the book clearly change in the last six chapters. Chapters 1-8 deal specifically with the situation of the returning exiles and the rebuilding of the Temple, with angels appearing as intermediaries. Chapters 9-14 deal with the broader themes of judgment on foreign cities and nations not mentioned in previous chapters–Hamath, Damascus, Egypt, and Greece. Many scholars even posit two different authors for these last six chapters, responsible for 9-11 and 12-14, respectively, with 13:7-9 possibly belonging with 9-11. The dating of this latter section is very difficult. Some scholars date chapters 10 and 13 as preexilic, while others date these chapters as late as the Maccabean period (second century B.C.E.).

The Branch

Zechariah foresees a man who will be simultaneously a servant and a “branch” (3:8-10), crowned with a crown of silver and gold, who will build the Lord’s Temple (6:11-15). The passage implies two people, a combined leadership of ruler or governor and priest, who “shall sit and rule on his throne” (6:13). The verses are also reminiscent of the branch from the stump of David in Isaiah 11:1, which is also later connected with Jesus as Messiah.


The restoration of Jerusalem is a dominant theme throughout the book–as a center of worship, a magnet for all nations to worship God, and a place where people live harmoniously. Sadly, in modern history, the city is often a symbol of contention. The place of Jerusalem is a critical issue today, because many people’s political views about the Middle East are shaped by their biblical interpretation of passages such as those found in Zechariah and elsewhere.

Messianic passages

Matthew and John quote Zechariah several times, drawing parallels to Jesus’ life. In their accounts of the Palm Sunday entry into Jerusalem, both Gospels quote Zechariah 9:9, “Lo, your king comes to you; triumphant and victorious is he, humble and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey” (Matthew 21:5; John 12:15). Zechariah’s oracle of the faithful shepherd being struck down (13:7) is cited by Jesus at the Mount of Olives following the Last Supper, as he foretells his desertion by the disciples: “I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock will be scattered” (Matthew 26:31, also Mark 14:27). Describing Judas’ betrayal and death, Matthew paraphrases Zechariah’s reference to thirty shekels of silver (11:12-13): “they took the thirty pieces of silver…and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me” (Matthew 27:9-10, where the passage from Zechariah is incorrectly attributed to Jeremiah). Zechariah’s oracle of compassion for those who have suffered (“they look on the one whom they have pierced”–12:10), is cited by John 19:37 at Jesus’ crucifixion as an indication of Scripture fulfilled.


Zechariah estimates that fully two-thirds of the flock will perish and be lost, but the one-third remaining remnant will be refined as silver and gold, and they will confess God faithfully (8:6, 11, 12; 13:7-9). The remnant remaining after punishment and exile is a common theme in prophetic writings, for example, Isaiah 10:20-22; 28:5; 37:31-32; Jeremiah 24:8; 42:19; 44:12, 14; Micah 5:7, 8; Zephaniah 2:7, 9; Haggai 1:12, 14.


Satan appears in the fourth vision, accusing the high priest Joshua. The Lord rebukes him and restores the festive garb of Joshua. The word “Satan” has a broad meaning in the Old Testament. Here the more accurate translation of ha-satan would be “the accuser,” similar to Satan’s role in 1 Chronicles 21:1 (“Satan stood up against Israel”) or Job 1:7-12; 2:1-6. There is no suggestion here that Satan is an angel, the devil, or a “fallen angel.”

Shepherds faithful and false

The role of the shepherd becomes prominent in the closing two oracles of the book. In 10:2-7 the shepherd as false ruler and leader will be punished, so that the Lord can restore the people. Chapter 11 is a passage whose historical context has been the object of much speculation. The prophet is commanded to be a shepherd, even though the flock is doomed to slaughter because they have been deceived by false shepherds. Due to the flock’s unfaithfulness, the Lord has given them over to worthless shepherds who disregard the people’s welfare and who in turn will be destroyed by the Lord. Chapter 13 ends with a poem in which the Lord will strike down the shepherd, scattering the sheep, but the one-third remnant will be refined and will acknowledge the Lord as God (13:7-9).

Temple ritual

The Jews in Babylon and in other dispersed places outside Judah had maintained their religious devotion without the Temple. When the first exiles returned to Jerusalem they laid the foundation for the restored Temple, but did not continue to build further (Ezra 4:4). Haggai and Zechariah led the movement to finish the Temple and reinstate the priesthood with a high priest(Ezra 5:1-2; 6:8-15). Yet, Zechariah cautions that true obedience to the Lord is not only in temple ritual, but in how we treat other people (7:1-10). After the final destruction of the Temple by the Romans in 70 C.E., the priesthood and temple ritual were replaced altogether by rabbinic Judaism and the synagogue.


Zechariah has more visions than any other prophetic book. Each is followed by an interpretation looking toward the future. The character of visions is that they are easily sculpted to fit one’s own theories. The history of scriptural interpretation is rife with fanciful or far-fetched theories based on biblical visions. Care must be taken to adhere as closely as possible to the meaning of visions in their own historical contexts.