Background of 1 Samuel
In the latter half of the eleventh century B.C.E., the major geopolitical powers in Egypt and Mesopotamia (that is, Assyria and Babylon) were preoccupied with their own internal troubles. As a result, the various peoples of Syro-Palestine vied for power among themselves. In response to military threats posed by the Philistines in the west (1 Samuel 4-7; 13-14; 17; 23; 31; 2 Samuel 5) and the Ammonites in the east (1 Samuel 11; 2 Samuel 10-12), the twelve tribes of IsraelThe patriarch Jacob fathered twelve sons who became the ancestors the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Divisive political conditions led to a separation of these united tribes into the Northern and Southern Kingdoms after the death of Solomon in 931 B.C.E More began a process of cooperation that eventually led to the anointing of SaulThe first king of Israel More as king.