Isaiah 2:2-4 – Swords into Plowshares


Isaiah 2:2-4


In the “days to come,” the nations will gather at Mount Zion to learn God’s word. Then war shall be no more.


Interspersed throughout the first section of the book, with its dark threats of judgment, are several passages like this one that announce to Israel God’s promises for a bright and glorious future. Judgment will never be God’s last word.

This passage is an example of Isaiah’s use of the “Zion tradition.” Mount Zion, the place God has chosen as the divine “resting place forever” (Psalm 132:14), will become, in God’s own time, a place of peace and reconciliation. The nations come to learn Torah (“instruction” in v. 3) and to hear the word of the Lord. And they respond fully! They transform their weapons into agricultural implements, for, having learned Torah (v. 3), they have no more need to learn war (v. 4).

This same oracle is found in another eighth-century prophet at Micah 4:1-3. Perhaps one “borrowed” from the other or perhaps both made use of an available divine oracle. Much later, Joel takes the promise and turns it around as a satirical call to the nations to prepare for war (Joel 3:10). God’s own judgment is coming, and the nations should get ready. The earlier use by Micah and Isaiah makes clear that, finally, though times of judgment will be real, God’s goal for all nations is peace.

Although all promises of the end time have sometimes been called “messianic,” this one makes no specific reference to God’s promises to David (see “The Messianic Kingdom” in Theological Themes). The prophets’ visions of God’s future were expansive and open rather than narrow and particular. All of God’s promises would find wonderful and surprising fulfillment–promises related to the messianic king, to Zion, to exodus and liberation, to the blessing of the nations, and to everything else God has begun with God’s chosen people.

Eternal peace, of course, comes only as God’s gift. Still, having been given a vision of God’s future, Israel and present hearers alike are called to practice this future in the present. Isaiah does this explicitly, making the nations who seek peace role models for Israel. The nations say, “Come, let us go up to the mountain of the LORD…that he may teach us his ways” (v. 3); Isaiah says to Jacob, “Come, let us walk in the light of the LORD! For you have forsaken the ways of your people” (vv. 5-6). Here the nations show Israel the way.