IsaiahIsaiah, son of Amoz, who prophesied in Jerusalem, is included among the prophets of the eighth century B.C.E. (along with Amos, Hosea, and Micah)--preachers who boldly proclaimed God's word of judgment against the economic, social, and religious disorders of their time. More calls the people to repentance and a life of justice. Though their rebellion has had serious consequences, return and renewal are still possible.
In an oracleAn oracle is a divine utterance of guidance, promise, or judgment delivered to humans through an intermediary (who is often also called an oracle). In the Bible oracles are given by Balaam (in the book of Numbers) and by David (in 2 Samuel). A number... More typical of the eighth-century prophets, Isaiah calls Israel to care for the oppressed and those in need of particular care, particularly the orphan and the widowA widow is a woman whose spouse has died, often plunging her into poverty and putting her in a vulnerable position in society. Jesus, in his concern for the poor, regards widows with compassion and concern. More.
The TorahThe Torah is the law of Moses, also known as the first five books of the Bible. To many the Torah is a combination of history, theology, and a legal or ritual guide. More frequently links orphans, widows, and aliens in its call for justice (for example, Exodus 22:21-22; Deuteronomy 24:17), because these groups were without power, cut off from the normal safety networks of land and family. They were particularly vulnerable, and biblical law therefore required that they not be taken advantage of–more, in fact, that they be given special attention.
Having failed to reach out to those for whom God cares, Israel’s hands are “full of blood” (Isaiah 1:15), but God has not given up on them. Despite the terrible word of judgment Isaiah must deliver to his whole generation (6:9-13), the possibility of repentance and renewal remains open for those who “are willing and obedient.” They might still wash themselves and become clean.
As part of an ongoing lawsuit that seeks to make hearers see their faults and turn to God, the verbs of vv. 18-19 should be read conditionally rather than as declarative promises: not that your sins “shall be” like snow, etc. (NRSV and most translations), but that they “may become” white as snow (NAB; see also NJPS). The matter is still open. God offers renewed purity, but refusal will mean destruction (see Deuteronomy 30:19).