MosesProphet who led Israel out of Egypt to the Promised Land and received the law at Sinai More challenges those who feel the torahThe Torah is the law of Moses, also known as the first five books of the Bible. To many the Torah is a combination of history, theology, and a legal or ritual guide. More is too difficult and encourages Israel to observe the torah.
We must not lose sight of the context. Here the context is the whole of chapter 30, which falls naturally into three interconnected parts:
- Moses’ appeal to those standing on the verge of the Jordan to repentRepentance is a central biblical teaching. All people are sinful and God desires that all people repent of their sins. The Hebrew word for repent means to "turn away" from sin. The Greek word for repentance means to "change on'e mind," more specifically, it means... More (vv. 1-10)
- his assurance that they are fully capable of faithful obedience (vv. 11-14)
- the culmination of this passage: Moses’ call for Israel to decide (vv. 15-20, see the next key passage)
Verses 1-10 are all about the Hebrew root shub (“return,” “repent,” “restore,” “again”). In fact these verses are artfully arranged in a concentric structure based upon seven occurrences of this theologically significant concept, as well as an alternating pattern of the “returns” of both Israel (“you” in Moses’ address to the people) and God:
A If you call (hashevota) them to mind…,
and return (shavta) to the LORD your God (vv. 1-2)
B Then the LORD…will restore (shav shevutka) your fortunes,
gathering you again (shav) from all the peoples (v. 3-7)
X You shall again (tashuv) obey the LORD (v. 8)
B′ The LORD will again (yashuv) take delight in prospering you (v. 9)
A′ Because you turn (tashuv) to the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul (v. 10)
This wonderful intermezzo on the importance of repentance is deepened by the metaphor of return. Repentance means a radical change in direction, a turning away from one allegiance in order to embrace another. As a result of Israel’s “return” to God (vv. 1-2), God will “return” Israel to the land of promise (v. 3), even from the “ends of the world” (v. 4), where Israel will prosper (vv. 5-7).
Can they do it? “Of course,” Moses says in verses 11-14. The torah (God’s instruction, guidance, and revelation) may have originated in heaven, but Moses and the prophets have made it available for all (vv. 12-13). In fact, it is “very near” (v. 14). Israel will hear it read and preached upon at all their festivals.
St. PaulA Christian missionary who once persecuted the church More cites this passage in Romans 10:4-10. What Moses says about the torah, however, is what Paul says about Christ. If the torah is the supreme example of God’s intention for the world in Deuteronomy, Christ now assumes that responsibility for the Christian.