The fall refers specifically to the disobedience of Adam and Eve when they listened to Satan rather than adhering to God's command not to eat the fruit from the tree. When people act contrary to God's will, they are said to fall from from grace... of the north is repeated, this time from the perspective of Judah was the name of Jacob's fourth son and one of the 12 tribes..
This second report of the fall of Samaria and the exile of the Israelites (compare 2 Kings 17:3-8) is presented from the perspective of the The Southern Kingdom consisted of two tribes of Israel, Judah and Benjamin. Jerusalem was its capital, and the kingdom lasted from 931-586 B.C.E. As with the Northern Kingdom many of the kings were wicked, and prophets like Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel spoke their often judgmental.... The chronological synchronisms with the reign of Hoshea are contradicted by extrabiblical evidence. By juxtaposing the chronological material of Hezekiah’s reign with that of Hoshea, the editors seek to stress the contemporaneous nature of the two kings. Coupled with the theological commentary on the demise of the north in verse 12, this serves as a word of warning to the inhabitants of Judah.