After the death of his father, RehoboamThe son of Solomon during whose reign the kingdom divided into north and south More failed to win ratification from the ten northern tribes because of his arrogance and, according to 2 Kings but not Chronicles, Solomon’s apostasy. These ten tribes broke away from the south and formed the northern kingdomThe Northern Kingdom consisted of ten of the twelve tribes of Israel and lasted for 200 years until it was destroyed by Assyria in 721 B.C.E. In the northern kingdom the kings were evil. Prophets like Elijah and Amos railed against them and their evildoing. More of Israel with its capital in Samaria.
The Deuteronomistic historian’s attribution of the division of the kingdom to Solomon’s apostasy (1 Kings 11:9-13) was at odds with the Chronicler’s portrayal of SolomonThird king of Israel who was known for wisdom and building the first Temple More. Instead of Solomon’s apostasy, therefore, the Chronicler suggested that the rebellion against the Davidic dynasty was rather rebellion against God and the templeThe Jerusalem temple, unlike the tabernacle, was a permanent structure, although (like the tabernacle) it was a place of worship and religious activity. On one occasion Jesus felt such activity was unacceptable and, as reported in all four Gospels, drove from the temple those engaged... More that God had established. Rehoboam, as the first king after the united reigns of DavidSecond king of Israel, David united the northern and southern kingdoms. More and Solomon, serves a paradigmatic function, embodying in his reign the three possible paths that subsequent kings will follow:
(1) Second Chronicles 10:1-11:4 demonstrates the Chronicler’s view that sin brings judgment. Both 1 Kings and Chronicles agree that Solomon, Jeroboam, and Rehoboam must all share in the blame for the divided monarchy: Solomon imposed a heavy yoke on the people (2 Chronicles 10:4, 9-11, 14; 1 Kings 12:4, 9-11, 14), Jeroboam rebelled (2 Chronicles 13:6; 1 Kings 11:26), and Rehoboam refused to follow the advice of the eldersElders are leaders who exercise wisdom or leadership by virtue of their age and experience. In the New Testament elders, along with the chief priests and scribes, constituted the primary opposition to Jesus when he taught in Jerusalem. More (2 Chronicles 10:6-8, 13; 1 Kings 12:6-8, 13). Rehoboam is thus as guilty as Jeroboam or Solomon for the split. The retention of Ahijah’s prophecyProphecy is the gift, inspired by God, of speaking and interpreting the divine will. Prophets such as Amos, Isaiah, and Ezekiel spoke words of judgment and comfort to the people of Israel on behalf of God. More makes clear that Rehoboam’s failure to heed his advisors was “brought about by God so that the LORD might fulfill his word” to tear the kingdom from Solomon and give it to Jeroboam (2 Chronicles 10:15-16, see also 11:4, “this thing is from me“).
(2) Second Chronicles 11:5-23 demonstrates that obedience brings blessingBlessing is the asking for or the giving of God's favor. Isaac was tricked into blessing Jacob instead of his firstborn Esau. At the Last Supper Jesus offered a blessing over bread and wine. To be blessed is to be favored by God. More. Three episodes, mostly without parallel in 1 Kings, proclaim that when the people walk in the ways of David and Solomon they will enjoy success:
- Rehoboam’s fortifications actually were made following the invasion of Shishak (12:1-12). Placing them before Egypt’s attack depicts Rehoboam as an obedient king who prospers (11:5-12).
- When the priests and Levites leave Jeroboam and return to the Jerusalem temple, JudahJudah was the name of Jacob's fourth son and one of the 12 tribes. More is depicted as the true remnant of “all Israel” (11:13-17).
- Rehoboam fathers twenty-eight sons and sixty daughters; large families are a frequent sign of blessing in Chronicles (2 Chronicles 11:18-23).
(3) Second Chronicles 12:1-16 demonstrates that even when disobedience has brought judgment, repentance brings deliverance. The prophet Shemaiah blames Shishak’s invasion on Rehoboam and all Israel’s abandonment of God (v. 5). But when Rehoboam and the leaders of Israel repented, they were delivered from complete destruction (vv. 6-7, 12). Most important, the terminology of sin and repentance (“forsake,” “be unfaithful,” “humble oneself,” “seek,” “abandon,” and “rebel,”)–established in Solomon’s paradigmatic prayer (6:24-25) and God’s response (7:14)–reappear here, testifying to the paradigmatic character of Rehoboam’s reign for the Chronicler.