The Bible sees Philistine aggression as the reason for Israel’s transition from a loose confederation of tribes to a nation with a king. The Philistines, armed with superior iron weapons and a more organized central government, posed a definite threat to the independence of the Israelite tribes. Nevertheless, the international situation may have played a greater role in the establishment of monarchy in Israel. At this time, the three great powers of the ancient Near East–Egypt, Assyria, and Babylon–were internally too weak to exert influence. This meant that lesser entities (Edom, Moab, Ammon, the Arameans, and Phoenicians) grew in power and influence. Israel was part of this regional development.
The first king of Israel (1020-1000 B.C.E.?) was chosen by The judge who anointed the first two kings of Israel to meet the Philistine threat and Israel’s clamoring for a king. As a military figure, Saul functioned as a transition between the “judges” and the monarchy, initially successful but ultimately unable to avert the Philistine threat.
Second king of Israel, David united the northern and southern kingdoms. (1000-961 B.C.E.) consolidated rule over both the northern and southern tribes with the nonaligned, centrally located city of Jerusalem as his capital, expanded Israel’s boundaries to their greatest extent, brought the The ark of the covenant was a box or chest that God commanded the Israelites to make from wood richly adorned with gold. The ark was built to contain the tablets of the covenant (the Ten Commandments). The ark served as a mobile shrine to... (the central sacred object in the time of the judges) to Jerusalem and placed it in a tent shrine, founded a new administration, and established the Davidic Empire. His success developed into the belief that God would establish David’s line forever and keep Jerusalem safe.
Third king of Israel who was known for wisdom and building the first Temple (961-922 B.C.E.), best known for his wealth and Wisdom encompasses the qualities of experience, knowledge, and good judgment. The Old Testament book of Proverbs, which sometimes invokes a Woman as the personification of Wisdom, is a collection of aphorisms and moral teachings. Along with other biblical passages, it teaches, "The fear of the..., reigned over Israel’s “Golden Age.” If David’s task was to expand the empire, Solomon’s was to hold it. This he did through massive building projects fortifying major cities such as Hazor, Megiddo, and Gezer, usually with the aid of forced labor–originally from foreign slaves but ultimately involving Israelites. He cemented a vast international network through alliances with rulers such as King of Tyre who provided materials for Solomon's Temple of Tyre and marriages to Edomite, Moabite, Ammonite, Sidonian, and Hittite royal daughters, including a daughter of pharaoh. Two revolts resulted in a loss of territory; a third was repelled. Solomon extended his father’s administration by instituting twelve districts for the purpose of taxation. They did not correspond to the old tribal divisions. Solomon’s greatest achievement was the construction of the The Jerusalem temple, unlike the tabernacle, was a permanent structure, although (like the tabernacle) it was a place of worship and religious activity. On one occasion Jesus felt such activity was unacceptable and, as reported in all four Gospels, drove from the temple those engaged..., with the aid of Phoenician architects and craftsmen, to house the Ark of the A covenant is a promise or agreement. In the Bible the promises made between God and God's people are known as covenants; they state or imply a relationship of commitment and obedience.; later, it became the only approved site for Sacrifice is commonly understood as the practice of offering or giving up something as a sign of worship, commitment, or obedience. In the Old Testament grain, wine, or animals are used as sacrifice. In some New Testament writings Jesus' death on the cross as the... and worship.