A series of significant destructions ushered in Iron Age I. Hattusa, the capital of the Hittites, was sacked, as were the Syrian cities of Ugarit (a rich source of texts concerned with Canaanite mythology and religion) and the important trading center of Emar on the Euphrates River.
Despite the Merneptah Stele’s claim that “Israel is laid waste, his seed is not”–the earliest extant extra-biblical reference to “Israel” (1209 B.C.E.)–Egypt lost control of Syria-Palestine in this period due to internal difficulties, war with the Sea Peoples, and weak pharaohs. In fact, the influence of all the major powers–Assyria, Babylon, and Egypt–waned in this period, though Assyria experienced a brief resurgence under Tiglath-Pileser I (1114-1076 B.C.E.), who campaigned successfully against Babylon. Eventually, however, a group of seminomadic, Semitic tribes known as the Arameans took over Syria and Mesopotamia. Their language, Aramaic, gradually spread throughout the ancient Near East, completely replacing Akkadian as the language of international commerce by the sixth century B.C.E. Parts of Ezra-Nehemiah and An interpreter of dreams who was delivered from the lions' den. are written in Aramaic, the language Jesus is the Messiah whose life, death, and resurrection are God's saving act for humanity spoke.
The cause of this widespread change has been attributed to draught, famine, the revolt of agrarian groups who resented the social control imposed by urban elites, and the invasion of the mysterious Sea Peoples, a group of peoples from the northern shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the island of Crete who raided the coasts of Egypt and Syria-Palestine.
The Philistines, who ultimately gave their name to the Levant as “Palestine,” arrived with the Sea Peoples and settled along the southern coastal plain, especially in the city-states of Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza, each ruled by a “tyrant.” Their conflict with the Israelites in the hill country of Syria-Palestine is the primary historical setting of the book of Judges. The bronze armaments of the Israelites were gravely inferior to the iron weapons of the Philistines. Israel, in this period, was a loose confederation of independent tribes with no central government. At times of Philistine attack, charismatic military leaders called “judges” (not to be confused with magistrates) would lead individual tribes or, occasionally, groups of tribes in battle. Religiously, these tribes may have gathered around a central shrine or ark containing the tablets of the law and celebrated at least three festivals: Passover commemorates the deliverance of the Hebrew people from Egypt as described in the book of Exodus. It is celebrated with worship and a meal on the fourteenth day of the month called Nisan, which is the first month of the Jewish year. The time... in the spring; Weeks, or Pentecost was originally a Jewish harvest or pilgrimage festival that fell on the fiftieth day after Passover. It was during this festival that the Holy Spirit visited Jesus' followers in tongues of fire and caused them to speak in many languages, as reported in Acts..., in the summer; and Tabernacles in The fall refers specifically to the disobedience of Adam and Eve when they listened to Satan rather than adhering to God's command not to eat the fruit from the tree. When people act contrary to God's will, they are said to fall from from grace....