Prophet who led Israel out of Egypt to the Promised Land and received the law at Sinai is not allowed to see God face-to-face, but does receive a disclosure of the character of God.
“I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show Mercy is a term used to describe leniency or compassion. God's mercy is frequently referred to or invoked in both the Old and New Testaments. on whom I will show mercy.” These words should be read in the context of Israel’s disobedience at Sinai. It is also important to recognize that the text does not develop a correlate: “I will punish whom I will punish, and will destroy whom I will destroy.” The words of 33:19 are not an expression of arbitrary sovereignty. The penalty for idolatry was death (22:20). God would have been justified in abandoning Israel to total destruction. “I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious…” is an assertion that God can transcend punitive retribution. In later prophetic preaching the announcements of judgment contained rationales; Israel’s conduct is cited as a reason for the judgments and destruction that are announced. In contrast, the announcements of hope are not grounded in a rationale growing out of human conduct. Deliverance, restoration, and transformation are based in God’s decision to forge a future where there is only condemnation and death. “I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious…” opens doors to a future where human beings can neither imagine one nor confidently guarantee one.
A Christian missionary who once persecuted the church, in Romans 9, draws upon this verse to argue that God in Christ could open the A covenant is a promise or agreement. In the Bible the promises made between God and God's people are known as covenants; they state or imply a relationship of commitment and obedience. to include Gentiles. God could break beyond God’s own covenant with The son of Isaac and Rebekah, renamed Israel, became the father of the twelve tribal families. This is not an argument for the Gentiles displacing Jacob; rather, in Christ God is not limited to Jacob. Exodus 33:19, in context, is not going that far, but in asserting God’s sovereign freedom to be gracious, a wide door is already opened. Given the severity of the covenant breach in making the golden calf, we should linger in astonishment over God’s graciousness in continuing a relationship with Israel before rushing to the New Testament inclusion of Gentiles.