MosesProphet who led Israel out of Egypt to the Promised Land and received the law at Sinai More urges the people to observe God’s commandments as the condition for inheriting the promised land.
The opening verses of chapter 4 will govern the narrative portions of Deuteronomy as well as the following books of the Deuteronomistic HistoryDeuteronomistic history refers to the narrative contained in the books of Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings. This narrative, probably written in the age of Israel's exile (mid-6th century B.C.E.), recounts Israel's history prior to the exile. More (Joshua-Kings). Briefly stated, there are two aspects to this seminal speech: God’s promise of the land of Canaan to AbrahamGod promised that Abraham would become the father of a great nation, receive a land, and bring blessing to all nations. More is about to be fulfilled; and Israel’s occupation of the land is dependant upon their obedience. The juxtaposition of God’s free gift of the land and the conditional nature of Israel’s continuing occupation will push and pull at each other throughout the historical books. The tension should not be relieved.
Several terms of importance for the rest of Deuteronomy appear in this seminal passage as well. Among these are four terms for the law. While the following differentiations are important and useful, it should be remembered that Deuteronomy itself uses these terms, and others, somewhat interchangeably:
- “Statute” (hoq) is technically something inscribed or chiseled into stone. Statutes often establish death penalties and include curses uttered against the wicked. Together with the “commandments” (see below), they are designated “apodictic law” or absolute pronouncements. Symbolically speaking, the permanency of the law may be inferred.
- “Ordinance” (mishpat, vv. 1, 8) is the decision rendered by a judge (shofet) in regard to a dispute. Such decisions were remembered and eventually gathered into a body of law that effectively set precedent for similar cases. Legal codes, such as that found in the CovenantA covenant is a promise or agreement. In the Bible the promises made between God and God's people are known as covenants; they state or imply a relationship of commitment and obedience. More Code (Exodus 20:22-23:33), probably originated in this way. Often designated “casuistic” or case law, these laws frequently begin by stating a case (“If…”) and then prescribe the decision required (“then…”). They have close parallels with the law codes of the Sumerians, Babylonians, Hittites, and Assyrians.
- “Law” (torahThe Torah is the law of Moses, also known as the first five books of the Bible. To many the Torah is a combination of history, theology, and a legal or ritual guide. More, v. 8) is usually translated as “law.” This is appropriate, though “teaching,” “instruction,” even “revelation” captures the nuance of this pervasive Old Testament term that expresses the moral and social teaching of God’s revelation to the covenant people. In Deuteronomy, torah often signifies the body of legislation known as the Deuteronomic Code found in chapters 12-26 (4:8; 30:10; 32:46), thus pointing to its character as “law.” After Deuteronomy, the entire PentateuchThe Pentateuch is a Christian term the first five books of the Old Testament. These books contain stories of Israel's early history, God's covenants, and many laws such as the Ten Commandments). More (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) with its law codes and the story of God’s dealings with Israel came to be called “The Torah,” thus pointing to its character as “teaching” or “revelation.”
- “Commandment” (mitzvah; not used in this passage) is self-explanatory and refers to a negative or positive command, usually stated in the second person singular (“you”), with no specific penalty prescribed. Together with the “statutes” (see above), they comprise the “apodictic law” of absolute pronouncements.
The promise of “life” is also a key concept in Deuteronomy (for example, 5:29, 33; 6:24; 30:19-20; 32:40). This is to be distinguished from a number of related concepts:
- “Eternal life” is a New Testament concept. The “life” envisioned in Deuteronomy is “length of days,” that is, a long lifetime.
- But simple longevity is also not in view. Life lived in relationship with God–a meaningful, purposeful existence–is closer to the mark.
- “Mere existence” is too bland an understanding of life.
- “Death” is its polar opposite. Life is to be chosen over both the last two in Deuteronomy (30:6, 15, 19, 20).
NRSV’s rendering of yarash as “occupy” in 4:1 and throughout Deuteronomy is unfortunate. Other translations suggest “take possession,” but the more literal reading, “inherit” the land, is to be preferred, since the Deuteronomic tradition considers both the land and Israel to be “the inheritance (nahalah) of the Lord.” Israel “occupies” the land of Canaan by “driving out” the Canaanites; but since it is God’s people (Israel) who inherit God’s land when God causes the Canaanites to “hand over the inheritance” (dispossess), the nature of the land as gift is stressed.